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SSD diski

Kaj je SSD disk?

SSD diski (Solid-State Drive) namesto magnetnih plošč uporabljajo bliskovni pomnilnik. S tem je disk mnogo hitrejši, manjši, neslišen, odporen na večino zunanjih dejavnikov in porabi precej manj energije. SSD diski so kompatibilni z večino priključkov (SATA, SAS, PCI-E ...).

Kakšna je razlika med USB ključkom in SSD diskom?

Tako USB ključki in SSD diski uporabljajo NAND flash pomnilnik. Vendar je velika razlika v kontrolerju, vmesniku in sami kvaliteti NAND pomnilnika.

Kaj je Flash pomnilnik?

Bliskovni pomnilnik je pomnilnik, na katerega je mogoče večkrat pisati. V nasprotju z DRAM bliskovni pomnilnik briše celice, preden lahko na njih zapisuje. Zato je hitrost branja vedno nižja kot hitrost pisanja. Bliskovni pomnilnik omogoča končno število ponovnih zapisov. Število ponovnih zapisov pa je odvisno od uporabljene tehnologije.

Kaj je NAND?

Bliskovni pomnilnik je na voljo kot NAND ali NOR. SSD diski uporabljajo NAND, saj je le-ta trpežnejši in cenejši. Njegove celice so gostejše in bralne/pisalne opreacije hitrejše kot pri NOR. NAND je tehnologija, ki se v elektronskih napravah uporablja za elektronsko pisanje/brisanje in shranjevanje podatkov. Te podatki se ohranijo tudi, ko se naprava ugasne.

Kakšna je razlika med SLC, MLC in TLC NAND tehnologijo?

NAND pomnilnik uprablja SLC (single level cell), MLC (multi level cell), TLC (triple level cell) ali QLC (quad level cell) tehnologijo. SLC NAND shranjuje en bit v eno celico, MLC NAND dva bita v eno celico, TLC tri bite v eno celico, QLC pa štiri bite v eno celico. Posledično imajo QLC, TLC in MLC NAND večjo kapaciteto, a v primerjavi s SLC krajšo življensko dobo. Prav tako se razlikujejo po hitrosti - najhitrejši je SLC, sledijo mu MLC, TLC in QLC. Pri ceni je vrstni red ravno obraten (SLC je najdražji).

Kaj je kontroler?

Kontroler pri SSD disku skrbi za povezavo med NAND pomnilnikom in računalnikom in je eden najpomembnejših faktorjev pri zmogljivosti SSD diskov.

Kaj je IOPS?

IOPS (Input/output Operations Per Second) je način merjenja zmogljivosti SSD diskov. IOPS je test, koliko vhodnih/izhodnih operacij lahko disk izvede v eni sekundi (mešanica testov pisanja in branja).

Kaj je TRIM?

TRIM je ukaz, s katerim operacijski sistem pove SSD disku, kateri podatki niso več v uporabi in se lahko izbrišejo. TRIM je za SSD diske nekaj podobnega kot defragmentacija HDD diskov. Pomembno pa je, da poleg diska tudi operacijski sistem podpira TRIM.

Vodila

Glavna vodila SSD diskov so:

  • Serial ATA (SATA II, SATA III, mSATA)
  • PCI Express
  • Serial attached SCSI

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