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Bitcoin

Bitcoin je posebna vrsta denarne valute - kriptovaluta. Je tudi inovativno plačilno omrežje, ki se ne zanaša na nobeno centralno banko oz. ustanovo ter tako prinaša številne prednosti pred običajnim denarjem.

Več v videu in pod njim.

Zgodovina

Bitcoin je leta 2008 izumil programer pod psevdonimom Satoshi Nakamoto. Januarja 2009 sta s Halom Finneyem že izvedla prvo transakcijo. Identiteta Nakamote do danes ni bila razkrita, oče Bitcoina pa se je aprila 2011 tudi popolnoma ukmaknil iz javnosti.

Kako deluje?

Bitcoin je omrežje vrstnikov (P2P - peer-to-peer), ki si izmenjujejo podatke po dogovorjenem protokolu. Posest nad bitcoinom v resnici pomeni posest nad naslovi, pod katerimi so v glavni knjigi sistema vknjižena določena stanja. Bitcoin naslovi se hranijo v posebnih denarnicah in jih je potrebno močno zaščititi.

Začetek

Če želimo imeti bitcoine v svoji posesti, si moramo ustvariti denarnico. Poznamo nekaj vrst denarnic, ki so različno varne. To so programska, mobilna, papirnata in (najbolj varna) strojna denarnica. Denarnice hranijo naše zasebne ključe, ki nam omogočajo dostop do bitcoinov. Sicer pa ima denarnica javni naslov, na katerega vam lahko kdorkoli nakaže sredstva. Podobno, kot če bi prijatelju posredovali elektronski naslov in bi nato od njega dobili pošto.

Veriga blokov

Veriga blokov (blockchain) je glavna, javna in skupna "knjiga" vseh potrjenih transakcij v omrežju Bitcoin. V uvodu smo povedali, da Bitcoin omrežje nima centralne enote, ki bi z njim upravljala. In res je tako. Verigo blokov namreč vzdržujejo t.i. rudarji (miners), ki z izračunavanjem zahtevnih matematičnih problemov skrbijo za red pri transakcijah. Rudar lahko postane prav vsak, a omrežje ni odvisno od nobenega. Vsak je za svoje delo tudi nagrajen z določeno količino bitcoinov.

Nakazila

Nakazilo pomeni prenos določene količine bitcoinov iz ene denarnice v drugo. Nakazila se združujejo v bloke, ki so povezani v že omenjeno verigo blokov. Pri nakazilih uporabimo skriven zasebni ključ iz bitcoin denarnice, ki jih digitalno podpiše. Podpis predstavlja matematični dokaz, da je nakazilo izdal lastnik denarnice. Podpis tudi zagotavlja, da nakazila kasneje ne more spremeniti nihče. Informacija o vsakem nakazilu je javna in se pošlje po omrežju. Po približno 10 minutah začnemo iz omrežja dobivati potrditve nakazila (rudarjenje).

Vrednost

Več

Več o Bitcoinu si lahko preberete v izvirni dokumentaciji. Priporočeno je, da se pred nakupom bitcoinov res dobro pozanimate o njihovem delovanju in se zavedate, da so precej tvegana naložba. Vedno investirajte toliko, kot ste pripravljeni izgubiti. Po nakupu pa jih dobro zavarujte z denarnicami, najbolje s strojnimi.

 

Povzeto po bitcoin.org in wikipedia.org/wiki/Bitcoin

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